Frequently Asked Questions

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1. What is Nexus?

nex·us /ˈneksəs/ a connection or series of connections linking two or more things.

MISSION

Developing open-source blockchain to support decentralization, innovative applications and responsible values.

VISION

Nexus is a peer-to-peer network, cryptocurrency, and contract technology that serves as an alternative to our current systems. It was built by a small group of innovative software architects, and is operated by a global decentralized community. Together, we envision a world in which there is greater trust and connection to one another.

2. Was Nexus an ICO?

No, Nexus is one of the few blockchains which was created from scratch, and mined into existence (like Bitcoin).

3. How is Nexus funded?

The Nexus Embassies are funded by a portion of each NXS block that is mined. The NXS automatically transfers into ‘Keys’ which are allocated between the Embassies.

4. What is the economic model of Nexus?

The first NXS block was mined on September 23rd of 2014 at 16:20:00 GMT – 7. The total supply as of 26th January 2019, is 78% of the September 2024 target of 78 million NXS. Please read more below

Economics

1. What is NXS?

Cryptocurrency is an important faucet to Nexus, which is why we have our own native currency called ‘NXS’. This currency is the backbone of our ecosystem because it pays miners to build blocks, and gives regular users income for simply holding their coins at a rate of return between 0.5% and 3.0% per annum.

NXS features include:

  • Cost: 0.01NXS per transaction.
  • Speed: 50 seconds per confirmation. Payments received are spendable within 1 confirmation, though it is recommended to wait for at least 3 to 6 confirmations for extra security.
  • Borderless: Transactions can be sent globally from wallet to wallet.
  • Security: Together, quantum resistance is provided by signature chains, hashing algorithms such as Argon2 and SK, and Lattice-Based Cryptography such as Falcon.
  • Decentralized: The issuance of NXS is independent of a central bank or government, and the supply is regulated by mathematics. The creation of NXS has zero debt or interest associated with its distribution and is backed by the physical resources that are required to mine it.
2. How can obtain NXS?

There are three ways to obtain NXS:

  1. NXS can be purchased

The following digital currency exchanges list NXS, which is tradeable between both digital currencies (e.g. BTC, ETH) and fiat currencies (e.g. USD, EUR, GBP).

  • Binance
  • Bittrex
  • Upbit
  • Coinspot
  • BC Bitcoin (UK Broker)

Purchase

  1. NXS can be earned through Staking

Staking is an energy efficient form of mining that provides security to the Nexus Blockchain.NXS can only be staked inside the official Nexus Wallet when in ‘staking mode’ and with a continuous internet connection (24 hours a day, 7 days a week).This ownership represents a ‘stake’ in the sense of an interest in something.In return, ‘stakers’ are rewarded for providing security to the network, andcan earn a ‘stake rate’ of between 0.5% and 3.0% per year on their NXS holdings.

Stake

  1. NXS can be earned through Mining

Mining is a process in which a computer program is run by high-performance hardware to process transactions and provide security to the Nexus Blockchain. In return, miners earn newly created NXS.

Mine

1. Where can I download the Nexus Wallet?

The wallet can be downloaded from the following page

Nexus Wallet

2. I need help with my Nexus Wallet, who should I contact?

If you have any specific wallet or general enquiries, please join one of our community channels (Slack or Telegram), and post a message asking for help.

1. What are Nexus’ most notable innovations?

Seven Layer Software Stack

Through our research we found that most projects built on Ethereum do not use the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) for its turing completeness, i.e. its ability to do universal computation. What businesses require from blockchain technology are contracts that function more like real world actions between people, with the addition of an immutable data layer capable of managing rights and ownership. Therefore, Nexus developed an easily accessible and versatile Software Stack where data can be operated on, its ownership transferred between users, and whereby conditions define the behavior of actions. The design not only provides numerous ready-made contract functionalities, it is also able to scale with the growing demand of smart contracts.

The Nexus architecture is designed as a seven-layered software stack that includes a 64-bit register-based contract engine. Each layer is designated to carry out a specialized process independently of one another, providing additional functionality to the existing Internet stack, the OSI model.  

 Software Stack

Register-Based Contact Engine

A register is the fastest storage medium inside your computer’s CPU (Central Processing Unit), that the processor uses to cache data in between calculations. The Nexus Contract engine follows this architecture as an improvement to other blockchain-powered virtual machines such as the EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) that still use the older stack architecture. The improved efficiency gained through the use of registers makes developing on Nexus not only easier, but also much more efficient and scalable.

Conditional Contracts

Nexus Contracts facilitate the function of intermediaries and are governed solely by the mathematics and code that runs on our 64-bit Register Virtual Machine.

Nexus Contracts are designed to feel like ‘actual’ real world contracts between people. A basic Nexus contract is comprised of three layers: data (Registers), programmable actions (Operations), and accounts (Signature Chains). Together, these layers verify the information of a system or Decentralized Application (DApp), following logic that closely relates to agreements and contracts between people. These actions are filtered through the use of ‘programmable conditions’ that define a more complex contract between two or more users. All the layers together form the foundation of the Dapp following the philosophy: “A blockchain is a verification system, not a computation engine.”

Nexus has followed this approach for the primary reason that smart contracts cannot be realized with existing language designs, they require a new architecture. This is in direct contrast to EOS’ use of Web Assembly (WASM), which was designed for web development rather than building secure financial applications. Conditional Contracts allow a user to set requirements in order for a contract to be fulfilled, such as contract time expiration, the decentralized exchange of an asset, or a non-custodial escrow services.

Signature Chains

Nexus has moved away from the UTXO transaction-based system and has implemented an architecture named Signature Chains. When a user makes a transaction, it is chained to the users previous transactions, creating a chain of signatures. Alternatively, when a user transfers an asset to another user, this is again recorded on their Signature Chain.

Signature Chains are comparable to a personal blockchain, and provide the foundation for features such as Managing Assets, whilst maintaining pseudo-anonymity for privacy. This type of architecture offers higher scaling potential, as only one signature needs to be verified per transaction. Comparing a single UTXO transaction could contain 1000’s of inputs, to transact even a small amount of coins.

 Signature Chains

Decentralized Login System

Signature Chains also provide a decentralized login system. This technology still uses public key cryptography, but rather than maintaining the keys on disk or the cloud, they are stored as a lock in ‘mathematical hyperspace’, that only your login credentials (username, password and pin) can unlock.

Signature Chains support the Nexus Wallet, making it accessible from any computer simply by logging in with your credentials. This removes the need for a wallet.dat file to access private keys, constantly rescanning the database, the inconvenience of having to make regular wallet backups, loss or theft of hard drives, and the risk of sending funds to unspendable addresses.

Signature Chains are also available for DApp developers to build with, furthering Nexus’ mission of increasing the accessibility of blockchain technology. Signature Chains are comparable to a personal blockchain, and provide the foundation for features such as Managing Assets, whilst maintaining pseudo-anonymity for privacy.

API Integration

The Nexus wallet provides a HTTP powered API. This layer provides an interface that allows developers to gain direct access to blockchain functionality. The Nexus API is for developers to build DApps and Hybrid Networks. Developers can use the API to build with contracts, which can facilitate the management of ownership rights and decentralized exchange of many different kinds of assets and tokens. The API can be used for the recording of Supply Chains, Digital Asset Licensing, Financial Assets, Records, Licenses, Certificates, and Securitized Token Offerings (STOs).

The Nexus API is based on a simple verb and noun semantics, and accepts a wide variety of encoding. It is the gateway into the blockchain, that can be used without direct access to the lower levels of the software stack, making development on Nexus as easy as developing a web application.

Developers can build Dapps simply in any language using our API, avoiding unnecessary mistakes being made. To add flexibility, a developer can make non-standard API calls with custom conditions to provide additional functionality to the DApp that is unavailable through the standard API. This can be further augmented with Domain-Specific Languages on the lower API layer. We hope this will reduce the learning curve associated with developing contracts, therefore stimulating the growth of the developer community. An SDK in Python is currently available.

Modular Wallet

The Nexus Wallet has a modular architecture that provides a platform for developers to build Wallet Modules with the Nexus API. Wallet Modules embed directly into the Wallet as extensions to the standard logical and interface layers of the software stack.

Decentralized Exchange

Assets and tokens hosted on Nexus fulfill the requirement of managing and storing ownership rights, and also provide another unique utility: decentralized exchange. Through the use of conditional contracts, without custodian services, anyone is able to transact between different tokens and assets. There is no authority that designates the process of listing, and there are no other parties involved in the exchange other than the buyer and the seller.

Tokenization Protocols

Nexus fungible tokens can facilitate the transparent and automatic payment of Royalties and Dividend payouts. Tokens can represent partial ownership or rights to an underlying digital or physical asset. The token allocation determines how the revenue is distributed, and the revenue is paid out to the holders in a direct peer-to-peer manner. This is in direct contrast to current manual systems that are used to facilitate these types of payments, which are often slow and costly to operate.

TAO Name System (TNS)

The TAO Name System (TNS) is similar to Domain Name System (DNS), allowing users to create and exchange names with one another that point to different objects, without having to use large hexadecimal addresses. These names can resolve to register addresses such as assets and tokens, or become aliases for user identification.

Hybrid Blockchain

A Hybrid Network on Nexus is geared towards any individual, company, or large enterprise wishing to manage their own private network, without the added complexity of worrying about system or network security and protection of critical user data.

‘Hybrid’ by definition means a combination of two different elements, to result in something new. Our Hybrid technology combines properties of public and private systems. The public network generates security and decentralization through higher levels of immutability, access control schemes, and custom validation algorithms, while the private network provides autonomy, privacy, and isolation.

The Nexus Hybrid Blockchain has the following properties and features: 

  • The existing system or application gains the security properties of the hybrid blockchain
  • The private blockchain gains the security parameters of the public blockchain
  • The potential to comply with GDPR, similar to that of a private database or Cloud service
  • Permissioned access schemes supported by LISP (Location-ID Separation Protocol) forming a VPN (Virtual Private Network)
  • Semi-permissioned access scheme to create tiers of data access between users, service providers, and partners to form an ecosystem

 

Quantum Resistance

Signature Chains use a one-time signature scheme that signs one message per key. Signature Chains enhance the security of existing DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), by hashing the public key until it is used while changing the key pair with every transaction. Signature Chains reduce the window of quantum vulnerability to the period between making a transaction and the inclusion of the transaction in the ledger.

Nexus has also integrated the following cryptographic functions: FALCON (a second round contender for the NIST Post-Quantum cryptography competition), Argon2 (winner of the password hashing competition, and a superior alternative to S-Crypt or B-Crypt), and Keccak (winner of the SHA3 competition).

 Quantum Resistance

Network Overlays

The Network is responsible for the end-to-end communication between nodes, handling the relaying and receiving of ledger level data. To advance the functionality of the Network Layer, we are the only blockchain to use the Locator Identifier Separation Protocol (LISP) overlay. LISP was developed by Dino Farinacci who was the first Fellow (the most senior rank or title one can achieve in engineering) of Cisco.

LISP provides many necessary features for ease of use, decentralization, security, scalability, and for secure access schemes for hybrid networks. Some of the below features are fully integrated, and others are being deployed through the TAO Framework.

LISP increases the reliability and security of communication between nodes, and is responsible for network scaling through multicast, identification through a static EID (Endpoint Identifiers), and authentication by using these identifiers.

The LISP Overlay also provides IPv6 functionality to the network, which allows the user to control their IP address through cryptography. Through IPv6 addressing LISP provides ample capacity for the emerging IoT industry. It will be used in a critical capacity with the release of the Amine upgrade, which uses the Network (IP) layer to shard data and assign identifiers to data segments for management of the distributed database, without the loss of security or privacy.

LISP

Lower Level Library

The Lower Level Library (LLL) is a high-performance ‘Template Library’ designed to power emerging-web technologies. The LLL is simple, powerful, and lightweight. It contains three main components: Cryptography (LLC), Database (LLD), and Protocol (LLP).

The Lower Level Database (LLD) is Nexus’ modular storage engine, which according to tests done by Nexus, is capable of outperforming most existing embedded database engines, achieving 100,000 writes and reads to disk in 0.33 seconds – rivaling Google’s LevelDB.

The Lower Level Protocol (LLP) is a core component of the Network Layer, a light and fast protocol that allows developers to customize their packet design and message interpretation. It gains scalability through simplicity and is capable of managing a large number of simultaneous connections.

The Lower Level Cryptography (LLC) is a light library that contains many useful cryptographic functions such as Post-Quantum Cryptography, AES, and Argon2.

Three Mining Channels

Two Proof of Work (PoW) channels (Prime and Hashing) and one Proof of Stake (PoS) channel are used to secure the network. Consensus is balanced between all three channels as it is based on collective chain weight, providing a higher resistance to 51% attacks compared to single algorithm blockchains. As the TAO framework is developed, these three forms of consensus will become the three layers of the 3DC.

Prime Channel

The Prime Channel is a Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism that uses 308-digit dense prime clusters. This makes the Prime Channel more ASIC resistant than usual hash mining.

Hashing Channel

This second channel is another Proof-of-Work channel, but it uses Hashcash as its mining algorithm. This has miners searching for SHA-3 hashes, which is similar to the Bitcoin SHA-256 hashes, but four times the size of the Bitcoin block hashes.

Proof of Stake Channel

The final channel is a reputation-based staking consensus method where users mint new NXS by holding and staking the coins that they hold. Four attributes determine the rate of return:

Trust

Nexus implements a reputation mechanism called ‘trust’ that records the consistent time that a node contributes to the validation process. Trust decreases three times faster than it accrues and translates into a variable stake reward of between 0.5% to 3% per annum.  Trust also benefits the Network layer, where nodes can determine the reputation or reliability of the nodes they are talking to, increasing security against ‘Sybil Attacks’.

 Trust

Three Dimensional Chain

As the protocol is further developed, the above three forms of consensus will become the three layers of the Three Dimensional Chain (3DC). The architecture will reduce miner centralization, and will be more efficient in on-chain scaling.

The 3DC will transform the ledger into a multi-layered processing system, in order to scale securely and maintain a high degree of decentralization. It is a promising candidate for solving the ‘Blockchain Trilemma’, an opinion that only two of the three qualities, Security, Decentralization and Scalability, are achievable concurrently.

It chains together cryptographic primitives into a multi-dimensional immutable object, and has three core dimensions: pBFT + reputation channels (X), immutability or authenticity (Y), and time (Z). The upgrades of Amine and Obsidian will add another layer of transaction processing ‘L2’ and ‘L3’, to the base layer ‘L1’.

 3DC

2. Is there a roadmap for Nexus?

Yes, please click here to view our roadmap – the Nexus TAO Framework.

3. What is Tritium, Amine, Obsidian and the TAO?

Each letter represents one of the three upgrades of the TAO Framework which includes the deployment of the Three-Dimensional Chain (3DC). Each consensus upgrade corresponds to the addition of a transaction level lock which will transform transaction processing into a multi-dimensional process.

  • Tritium (T) – L1
  • Amine (A) – L2
  • Obsidian (O) – L3
4. How does Nexus reach consensus?

Nexus is unique among blockchain technology in that we use three channels to secure the network: two Proof of Work (PoW) channels (Prime and Hashing) and one Proof of Stake (PoS) channel. Consensus is balanced between all three channels as it is based on collective chain weight, providing a higher resistance to 51% attacks compared to single algorithm blockchains. As the TAO framework is developed, these three forms of consensus will become the three layers of the 3DC.

Nexus can respond to an increased hashrate in the space of one block, while each of the channels scales independently of the other. This stabilizes block time at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. Every 20 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate chain.

5. Does Nexus have smart contracts? What is a smart contract?

Does Nexus have smart contracts?

Yes, the Nexus architecture has a 64-bit register-based Virtual Machine for contract processing.  

Software Stack Decentralized Applications

What is a smart contract?

Smart Contracts are self-executing. Their design is to enforce the terms and conditions of a contract through programmable logic, reducing the need for third party intermediaries such as brokers and banks. Smart Contracts are an additional layer of processing above the ledger layer, i.e what is known as ‘the blockchain’, and are comparable to small computer programs that hold a state of information. The calculations of the contract are carried out by the processing nodes of a blockchain, which change the state of the information. Given that the calculations or processing is carried out by distributed consensus, the state of a Smart Contract is immutable.

Bitcoin was introduced with built-in Smart Contract functionality, which it calls ‘scripts’. Ethereum augmented these capabilities into its ‘Turing Complete Smart Contracts’, through a custom programming language called Solidity, which is then compiled into assembly language that is run on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). 

Though very capable, Ethereum has experienced some issues in regards to security, performance, and ease-of-use, largely because of its Turing complete and 256-bit native design. Some notable cases include the $75m DAO hack on Ethereum, and the $286m Parity bug. Vulnerabilities existed due to the large complexity of a Turing complete system, and the resulting difficulty of resolving bugs in a protocol written in immutable code.

The complexity of operations that support universal computation or Turing complete designs also limit scalability. A universal system has a higher degree of complexity, and can not therefore compete with technology that is designed for more specialized tasks. An example of this observation would be the comparison between a CPU (Central Processing Unit) with an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) in the mining of cryptocurrency. A CPU can’t compete against a SHA256 miner, as its complexity and design is geared to support universal general computation, not specialized computation. A similar conclusion could be drawn when a comparison is made between the system design of Ethereum (universal), and Nexus (specialized).

6. Why are quantum computers a threat to blockchain technology, and is NXS quantum resistant?

Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0. Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula (2^n) + 1, with n being the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change state.

Quantum computers on the other hand, use what are termed quantum bits or ‘qubits’ which are represented by the quantum spin of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, allowing the qubit to assume a value of 1 and 0 simultaneously, generally resulting in an exponential increase in computational power over their classical counterparts.

With the rise in the power of classical computers and the emergence of quantum computers, public keys are becoming increasingly vulnerable. Most cryptocurrency addresses are created by hashing or obscuring the public key, however, once a user transfers funds from this address, the public key is then revealed on the blockchain. In the realm of classical computing there is little risk with this method. However, a Quantum Computer running Shor’s algorithm could break most public key cryptography in little to no time at all, resulting in funds being stolen. Though most conjectures range from five to ten years before security could begin to break, Nexus has prepared by integrating a number of cryptographic innovations that support increased levels of quantum resistance.

We have developed an architecture called Signature Chains that enhance the security of existing DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), by hashing the public key until it is used while changing the key pair with every transaction. We have also integrated the following cryptographic functions: FALCON (a second round contender for the NIST Post-Quantum cryptography competition), Argon2 (winner of the password hashing competition, and a superior alternative to S-Crypt or B-Crypt), and Keccak (winner of the SHA3 competition).

Quantum Resistance

7. What are the scaling issues facing Blockchain?

The fundamental issue of scaling comes down to what is termed the ‘Blockchain Trilemma’, an opinion that only two of the three qualities, Security, Decentralization and Scalability,  are achievable concurrently. 

Please read the The Three Dimensional Chain for details on how Nexus is implementing an architecture that is a promising candidate to solving the ‘Blockchain Trilemma’, and The Ethereum Blockchain is over 1TB for further reading.

 

8. How does Nexus intend to solve the scaling challenges facing blockchain? What is the 3-Dimensional Blockchain (3DC)?

Please read the The Three Dimensional Chain for details on how Nexus is implementing an architecture that is a promising candidate for solving the ‘Blockchain Trilemma’.

9. What are the limitations of the current infrastructure of the Internet?

Today the Internet relies on both large cables that run across the ocean floor, and geosynchronous satellites. The main drawbacks resulting from the state of the current Internet infrastructure are as follows:

  • 4 billion people are without Internet connection.
  • Unreliability in some areas due to natural disasters.
  • Intercontinental cables and geosynchronous satellites cost millions of dollars to build, deploy and maintain, and are therefore owned and managed by governments and large corporations.
  • ‘Command and Control’ operation and telemetry systems rely on centralized organizations for satellite management.
  • ISPs usually have a monopoly over a particular service area, leading to higher service fees and lack of incentive for quality.
  • Increased censorship and the ‘throttling’ of information due to lack of ‘Net Neutrality’.
10. How will Nexus improve the current internet?

Some organizations have deployed cube satellites into LEO (Lower Earth Orbit), however their models are dependent on centralized ownership and management. One of our longer term visions, is to tokenize satellite ownership, whereby token holders will be entitled to the revenue earned and voting rights, in order to facilitate decentralized ownership and management. When you combine this with affordable antennas and local area mesh networks, we envision the beginning of a new Internet.

We welcome all parties whom would like to become a part of this collaborative economy, to connect with us.

1. Can I stake NXS?

Yes. Staking is anenergy efficient form of mining that provides security to the Nexus Blockchain.NXS can only be staked inside the official Nexus Wallet when in ‘staking mode’ and with a continuous internet connection (24 hours a day, 7 days a week).This ownership represents a ‘stake’ in the sense of an interest in something.In return, ‘stakers’ are rewarded for providing security to the network, andcan earn a ‘stake rate’ of between 0.5% and 3.0% per year on their NXS holdings.

Stake

2. Is there a minimum amount of NXS required to stake?

It is possible to stake with any amount of NXS and earn stake rewards at a rate of 0.5%. However, to grow your stake rate and reach the maximum of 3.0%, your node must find a Proof of Stake block at least every 72 hours. As of the 6th of June 2019 it takes around 10,000 NXS to do this.

Similar to other forms of mining, ‘Proof of Stake’ mining has a level of ‘difficulty’. As more people successfully stake on the network, the difficulty of mining Proof of Stake blocks increases. This increases the amount of NXS required to find at least one block every 72 hours and increase the stake rate. While difficulty reduces the frequency of mining stake blocks, a larger balance of NXS in your wallet will increase the frequency. Thus, if you are not finding blocks within the 72 hour requirement, and wish to increase your stake rate, the easiest way to do so is to increase your balance.

3. How do I begin Staking?

Please see the Section of the Wallet guide ‘Enable Staking’.

Wallet Guide

4. What is a Genesis transaction ?

Genesis is the process by which a wallet creates a trust key to use for staking.This is the first step for staking a new wallet.When it creates a new trust key, the Genesis transaction will transfer your wallet balance to that key for staking. This has no impact on your wallet balance.After the trust key is created, the wallet will no longer stake Genesis, and will instead stake Trust transactions.

  • Balance must have a minimum coin age of 3 days (72 hours) before the wallet will begin attempting to create a Genesis transaction.
  • The Genesis transaction takes longer to generate than subsequent Trust transactions. For lower balances, it may stake for multiple weeks before you see this.
  • The Genesis reward pays the base 0.5% annual stake rate based on the average age of the balance in your wallet. Therefore, how long it takes to generate does not penalize you. If it takes twice as long, the reward will be twice as much.
5. I have not received a Trust transaction in a few days, is that normal?

There is no set time period in which it finds a new block.It is not at all unusual to go a period of time without a Trust transaction.

  • Trust transactions are more frequent if you have a higher balance.
  • Trust transaction frequency increases somewhat as trust weight and block weight increase.
  • Stake reward is based on your stake rate and the time it takes to mine a block. If it takes 2 days to generate a Trust transaction, then your stake reward is twice the size it would be if it only took 1 day. Thus, the frequency of stake rewards does not impact your overall earnings from staking, with the exception of the 72 hour requirement.
  • As long as you find at least one Proof of Stake block which generates a Trust transaction within the 72 hour requirement, your trust and stake rate will increase. If it takes longer than 72 hours, trust and stake rate decay at a rate of 3:1. In other words, you lose 3 days of increase for every 1 day it exceeds 72 hours between blocks.
  • If you turn off your wallet, or otherwise go a long time between stake transactions, it is possible for your trust and stake rate to decay back to the beginning. The staking metrics will display 0.5% stake rate, 1.11% trust weight, and 100% block weight. This means your trust and stake rate have fully decayed to the minimum. These values will not change until you mine a new Proof of Stake block.
6. What are stake rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight?

These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction.

Stake Rate – This value represents your current annual NXS rate of return (%). The rate starts at 0.5%, and can increase to 3.0% after 12 months of consistent staking. The rate increase is non linear, slowing in terms of its increase over time. It takes several weeks of consistent staking to reach 1.0%, and around four months to reach 2.0%. With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive over time for staking.

Trust Weight – An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 1.11% and increases in a non-linear manner like stake rate does. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of mining stake blocks and receiving staking rewards. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases.

  • For new wallets staking Genesis, trust weight is based on coin age with a maximum of 11%.
  • After Genesis, trust weight is a measure of the overall trust score you have accrued. It is displayed as a percentage of the maximum possible trust score.
  • The time investment needed to build trust increases network security.
  • Trust score takes 84 days of successful staking to reach 50% trust weight, and 345 days to reach 100%.

Block Weight – Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% in 3 days time. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets.

  • Your wallet must mine a stake block and generate a transaction before it reaches 100% for trust weight and stake rate to keep increasing.
  • If your block weight reaches 100%, it will stay at 100% and both your trust weight and stake rate will begin to decay.

What happens when my Block Weight reaches 100%?

  • Trust weight and stake rate will begin to decay.
  • Without a transaction they will eventually decay back to the start.
  • Generating a new Trust transaction resets block weight, and trust weight/ stake rate continue increasing from their current values.
  • Trust decays at a 3:1 rate to which it was gained. For a new key, it takes 1 day for 3 days of trust to decay. An established key holds onto trust much longer. A 3-month key takes a full month to decay completely, for example.
  • Establishing a new trust key is not immediate, by design. The network does not give away trust for free. You may see staking values decay back to the start multiple times before it manages to generate transactions frequently enough to keep going.
  • If it decays back to the start, the wallet will display minimal trust weight of 1.11% with stake rate 0.5% and block weight 100% until it generates a transaction. This is normal. It is not stuck.

Stake Weight – The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is derived from your trust weight and block weight

  • Stake weight is a derivative value calculated from trust weight and block weight. It indicates their combined impact on chances to generate a staking transaction.
  • The value will change as trust weight and block weight change.
  • It is for display only as a metric, and is not directly used. Trust weight and block weight values are used.

What affects block production in staking?

  • For new wallets staking Genesis, total balance and trust weight calculated from coin age.
  • For wallets after Genesis, total balance, block weight, and trust weight calculated from trust score.
1. Can I mine NXS?

Yes, two Proof of Work (PoW) channels (Prime and Hashing) and one Proof of Stake (PoS) channel are used to secure the network. Consensus is balanced between all three channels, making the network more resistant to 51% attacks.The prime algorithm is optimized for use by your computer’s central processing unit (CPU), while the hashing algorithm runs optimally on the graphics processing unit (GPU).

Prime Mining Channel

This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU.

Hashing Channel

This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU.

Please learn more on the following webpage:

Mine

2. How do I mine NXS?

As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows and Linux. There are also third-party macOS builds available.

Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.

Prime Mining:

Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet?

Please download the relevant miner from the Mine page. Note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only.

Step 1 – Extract the archive file to a folder.

Step 2 – Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing.

It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file:

"experimental" : "true"

This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate.

Step 3 – Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For more information on pools and settings, please see the Mine page.

Hashing:

The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability.

The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner.

Step 1 – Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf

You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:

  • llpallowip=127.0.0.1:9325
  • mining=1

Step 2 – Extract the files into a new folder.

Step 3 – Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet.

1. What are the ‘responsible values’ that Nexus supports?

The Nexus community is the foundation for the strength, diversity and resilience of Nexus. Together, we provide ideas and resources that are crucial to the health of the network. Whether you trade, mine or stake NXS, develop applications to sell or share, or exchange ideas in one of our community channels, you are a part of the community. We are a diverse network of individuals who advocate the following principles:

Responsibility & Independence

Decentralized Systems have the ability to provide choices to become more independent from existing systems, which are often centralized and reliant on outdated processes.

Decentralization & Meritocracy

Decentralization of power and resources is fundamental to building the foundations of a meritocracy, where people are rewarded proportional to their merit.

Information & Exchange

The technology of Nexus is developed for people to have free access to information and exchange, creating the possibility for more novelty.

Honesty & Transparency

Honesty nurtures trust between people, allowing us to be more effective as a group, whilst transparency cultivates integrity.

Community & Collaboration

Respecting ourselves and others encourages greater cooperation, collaboration and growth, to build stronger relationships and therefore a stronger community.

The more people that contribute to a decentralized system, the more secure, resilient and robust it becomes. Each Nexus Wallet is a node, providing security and redundancy to the network, operated by individuals who are a part of the greater Nexus ecosystem.

To learn more about Nexus and to meet our community, please join one of our community channels, which can be found in the footer. Within the channels you will find many helpful and inspirational people.

2. How can I join the community? (Community Channels)

To learn more about Nexus and to meet our community, please join one of our community channels, which can be found in the footer.

3. What are Nexus Working Groups?

Nexus has adopted the Internet Engineering Task Force’s (IETF) time-tested open process through Working Groups. Our Working Group model connects a decentralized collection of people who work together to set standards or develop new components of our technology. The groups are open to anyone who would like to contribute to the research and development of Nexus.

Here, you can learn about the layers of the Nexus architecture that matter most to you, and design functions and features with our developers. A consistent connection between developers and users ensures the standards of the Nexus architecture are defined through consensus.

The current Nexus Working Groups are:

  • Designs-wg: Set higher level standards for the Nexus Architecture. (Registers, Objects, API)
  • Use cases-wg: Discuss functionality for different sectors
  • Economics-wg: Discuss topics that affect the entire economic model
  • Communications-wg: Write content for the website, WIKI, and social media
  • Website-wg: Develop the standards and design of the Nexus Website
  • Graphics-wg: Develop graphics to support the Nexus Brand
  • Social-wg: Discuss and design Decentralized Voting Structures
  • Translations-wg: Translate content for the website

Please join one of our community channels to get involved in Nexus working groups.